Director's Message

I would like to wish all of the TANMS family a Happy New Year entering 2017.  Looking back over the last 2016 year shows considerable advancement in our Engineering Research Center’s (ERC) fifth year of activity.  These advancements include 1) technical improvements in our testbeds, 2) new Industry Advisory Board (IAB) members, 3) attracted an innovative educational director, 4) added faculty/institutional partner at UT Dallas, and 5) completed another successful Annual Research Strategy Meeting for RF Multiferroic Antenna which continues to grow. 

We also continue to educate the best and brightest students in the country, as well as expand our Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) outreach program to a mix a high schools and undergraduate programs across the country.  Another significant development was an additional multi-million dollar research award for an exciting international research collaboration between TANMS, the Center for Advanced Materials and BioEngineering Research (AMBER, Trinity College, Dublin) and the Center for Nanostructured Media School of Mathematic & Physics (CNM, Queen’s University, Belfast) organizations.  Both AMBER and CNM are Ireland based Engineering Research Centers focused on advancing the field of efficient microelectronic devices representing a perfect fit with the TANMS research organization. Therefore, TANMS has a number of advancements to be proud of thanks to all the hard work of our organizational members.

As we embark on 2017, we expect to continue fine-tuning our strategic plan and optimizing our research direction to ensure sustainability as we enter our critical sixth year.  Since we are nearly halfway through our 10-year, $40 million funding horizon, we must reassess our strategic direction to ensure it remains one we are confident of long-term viability, i.e. specifically beyond year 10.  It’s exciting to review and reconsider all of our options recognizing the deep and experienced team of employees, faculty, students and government/industry partners we have access to.  I am personally looking forward to continuing our collaborations with our global TANMS team to ensure the long term success of our Center.

Please enjoy this latest edition of our TANMS Multiferroic Focus, and cheers to a fruitful, productive and eventful 2017!

Gregory P. Carman
TANMS Center Director

Research Highlight: TANMS Modeling Thrust

by Dr. Christopher Lynch, Modeling Thrust Leader

The TANMS Modeling Thrust has made major advancements since the inception of TANMS 4 years ago, providing significantly enhanced capability for the design and optimization of magnetic nanostructures and related devices. These advances have continued over the past year.

Modeling is a key component of the TANMS exploration of magnetoelectricity at the nanoscale. Controlling magnetism using current in a wire to create a magnetic field is not effective at the nanoscale. This limitation is being overcome in the TANMS center by using the magnetoelectric effect in the design and development of nanoscale magnetic materials and devices. The magnetoelectric effect uses electric fields combined with direct and indirect magnetoelectric coupling to control magnetism (Chung, Keller, & Carman, 2009; Chung, Wong, Keller, Wang, & Carman, 2009; J. Cui et al., 2013; Zhang, Chen, & Guo, 2009). With the large number of electrical, mechanical, and magnetic parameters that affect magnetism at the nanoscale, and with the time and resource constraints associated with nanoscale experiments, success can only be achieved using physics based modeling as a design tool followed by fabrication and testing. A build and test approach without modeling would devote considerable resources to exploring a very large parameter space with limited results. At the inception of the TANMS center the modeling tools needed for the development of magnetoelectric nanostructures were generally not available. The TANMS modeling thrust has been developing and validating new modeling tools and applying these innovative tools throughout the center. These state of the art modeling tools provide a fundamental understanding of material response, the ability to interpret test data, and the ability to design multiple memory, antenna, and motor testbed devices. The needs of these system level testbed devices have extensively driven the application of existing modeling tools based on ab initio calculations, and the development of new modeling tools that incorporate meso-scale micromagnetics, larger scale continuum level models, and optimization approaches.

One of the complexities of working with magnetism at the nanoscale is that when describing the physics, the researcher is right at the intersection of quantum mechanical and phenomenological effects. At the level of quantum mechanics, describing magnetism requires a detailed description of the electronic structure of matter including electron spin effects, and spin/orbital/lattice coupling. TANMS researchers use the ab initio approach to model magnetic material behavior at this length scale. This approach has been especially important to designing magnetic tunnel junctions for the memory testbed with interface layers that can be as small as a few atomic layers thick, yet have profound effects on the magnetic behavior of the devices; and to the identification of parameters for higher length scale models that predict effects of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy used to design a ballistic switching memory element by controlling a transition from in-plane to out-of-plane magnetization in ultra-thin films. Quantum mechanical effects are at the root of many of the phenomena that govern magnetism at the nanoscale, yet TANMS is often designing devices that are too large for the direct application of quantum mechanics. This has led to the development of models that bridge length scales. One such scale-bridging model combines quantum mechanical effects and continuum scale effects to describe the behavior of granular magnetoelectric composites. This model has predicted a new type of magnetic phase transitions in 2-D arrays. It is now being used to guide the TANMS materials thrust in the development of distributed planar arrays of several to tens of nanometers diameter spherical magnetic particles with well-controlled spacing in a ferroelectric matrix. New discoveries like this are just some of the many benefits of the cross thrust collaborations within TANMS.

Modeling magnetism at the nanometer to micron length scale is not feasible using ab initio methods. Even at these small length scales the magnetization is inhomogeneous and can form planar domain walls and local magnetic vortex structures. Micromagnetics was developed in the 1950s and 1960s (Brown, 1963) to model magnetic inhomogeneities. One of the simplest implementations is the Stoner-Wohlfarth model (uniform spin, no domains) used to model magnetic hysteresis. At the next level of complexity, the cumulative effects of magnetic spins are modeled as local magnetization. Up to a certain length scale, typically a few nanometers, the spins interact in a way that gives relatively uniform magnetization. At larger length scales, forces are generated by the crystal lattice, surfaces, and interfaces that result in a net torque on the magnetic moments. An energy function is established that includes contributions of each of the magnetic phenomena, and the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation is used to simulate the evolution of magnetization toward a lower energy state (Gilbert, 2004). The LLG equation is an expression of the conservation of angular momentum of the electron spins subjected to magnetic field type forces that leads to damped precession of the spins. Micromagnetics rarely includes magnetostriction, yet this is an effect critical to the devices TANMS is developing. Although several groups (Roy, Bandyopadhyay, & Atulasimha, 2011) have used LLG with uniform strain and single spin magnetization to model magnetoelastic interactions, these simplified approximations are too restrictive for use in designing the TANMS memory, motor, and antenna testbed devices. To address this shortcoming, TANMS researchers have solved the fully coupled set of partial differential equations defined by elastodynamics and LLG. These models are capable of simulating complex geometries with non-uniform magnetization and strain as well as the complex dynamic effects present in the TANMS memory, motor and antenna applications.

Some applications, including antennas, require the design of nanostructures to achieve well-controlled properties at the continuum scale. One such antenna application couples acoustic waves with electromagnetic waves. Design across the length and time scales in devices that couple elastic waves with ferromagnetic resonance using strain to dynamically change the properties requires the use of coupled Maxwell’s and elastodynamics equations. TANMS is the first group to make substantial progress in this area.

Optimization methodologies have provided significant benefits in many areas of design, yet there has been very little use of optimization methodologies in the design of magnetoelectric nanostructures. To our knowledge, TANMS is the first in the research community to apply mathematical optimization techniques (i.e. beyond simple iteration approaches) to optimize the functionality of these incredibly complex nonlinear multiferroic systems. We believe the TANMS team is the leader these areas.

The TANMS modeling thrust has applied existing modeling tools, developed new modeling tools, validated models using experimental data, applied the validated modeling tools to the design of testbed structures, and is disseminating these modeling tools throughout TANMS. Several examples illustrate the impact this is having throughout TANMS.

1. ab initio methods have been used to explore the complex interaction of strain/electric field/atomic interfaces on local magnetic anisotropy (Kioussis). These ab initio calculations support the materials efforts leading to improved material properties (Schlom, Ramesh), and the memory testbed leading to improved magnetic tunnel junctions (K. Wang and Khalili). They have also provided material constants for surface effects recently implemented in micromagnetics models (Lynch) in support of the memory and motor testbeds.

2. Nanoscale composites models that include quantum mechanical effects and transport properties have predicted new multiferroic coupling (Beloborodov), opening a new area of study for multiferroic researchers. The materials thrust (Tolbert) is actively working to develop materials based on the predictions of these models.

3. Elastodynamic equations fully coupled with LLG have been implemented in numerical solvers available to the entire team (Carman). This has led to the design of ballistic switching devices to achieve 180-degree magnetization reorientation (Lynch). The memory testbed is now working to incorporate this mechanism into a magnetic tunnel junction (Khalili and K. Wang).

4. At the continuum level, a multiphysics approach that couples elastodyanamics with Maxwells equations was developed to model and understand the influence of this coupling on material parameters and antenna functionality (E. Wang, Carman). This is being extended by the antenna thrust for antenna design (E. Wang) using a 3-D finite difference time domain (FDTD) method.

5. Multiphysics finite element models have been integrated into an optimization methodology (Sepulveda) to maximize antenna gain and other parameters.

We are looking forward to outstanding achievements as 2017 progresses!

Annual Strategy Meeting for Multiferroic Meso-Micro RF Devices A Success!

by Tom Normand, TANMS Director of Industrial Relations

This past November, TANMS hosted our Third Annual Research Strategy Meeting (ARSM) for Multiferroic Meso-Micro RF Devices at the brand new UCLA Luskin Conference Center.  The workshop was a success, with over 80 attendees from government, military, academia and industry participating in our interactive sessions.  We began the event with an overview of multiferroic opportunities, followed by a mix of discussion topics segmented by RF Materials, RF Modeling and concluding with RF Devices.

The final session of the day consisted of a roadmapping exercise, led by TANMS Center Director and UCLA Professor Greg Carman, where audience input was recorded to assemble a summary document.   Initially an active debate surrounded the use of both ‘top down’ and ‘bottom up’ strategic planning processes. For the most part this document reflects a ‘top down’ approach to moving the RF multiferroic field forward with applications driving the fundamental research discoveries.

During the roadmapping exercise, a number of interesting RF multiferroic applications were discussed.  Included in this discussion, beyond what was presented during the day, (e.g. electrically small antennas), was most notably high-potential “low power, bio-medical” applications.  In general, the group believed that the medical arena may provide an initial device opportunity based on the unique attributes of RF multiferroics combined with the high monetary value of many medical devices.   In addition to medical devices, the community uniformly agreed that one of the key focuses for the group should be developing a magnetic material with low loss, non-conducting, and magnetoelastic properties.  It was believed that this is the primary barrier for this area to begin transitioning into commercial devices.  Finally, the presentations provided clear evidence of modeling developmental efforts but there was a concern that these models are only available at select universities rather than widely available to the user community.  There was also consensus that any potential innovations need to be all-encompassing and not just for military applications.

In addition, the group felt that the next TANMS ARSM should be extended for at least an additional day (to a full 2-day or 2½-day event) to include more presentations and possibly new research areas (e.g. magnetoelectric memory and motor applications).  This extension would increase the event’s value and aide some attendees who found it difficult to secure travel authorization for a 1-day event.

These brainstorming results are graphically shown on the roadmap illustration in this article.  We also distributed a comprehensive document overviewing the outcomes from ARSM 2016 to all attendees and invitees.   If you have any comments/input or additional ideas about this roadmapping exercise please e-mail Tom Normand directly at

We hope to see you this fall for a potentially expanded and even more exciting and innovative interactive TANMS Annual Research Strategy Meeting!

TANMS Brings New Science Module to 200 High School Students!

by Dr. Pilar O'Cadiz, TANMS Education Director

TANMS is launching a new high school curriculum and teacher professional development project in 2017. TANMS graduate students will be delivering a two-week
 science Module engaging high school students in TANMS-related science learning culminating in a hands-on electromagnetic motor design challenge. The winning team will receive a 3D printed model of their design. The goal is to promote students’ interest in science and engineering career aspirations while exposing them the innovative scientific research happening at TANMS. 

The project evolved last summer from the work of high school teacher, Maria Lyn Genota, working in collaboration with Dr. Jane Chang (TANMS Deputy Director and Professor of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at UCLA) and TANMS graduate students, Kevin Fitzell and Maggie Xiao, as part of the TANMS RET (Research Experience for Teachers) program. Mrs. Genota is a veteran Physics teacher at Lawndale High School in Centinela Valley Union High School District (CVUHSD) and an adviser to the Mathematics Engineering Science Achievement (MESA) team at her school.

The two hundred students currently enrolled in one of the Physics classes Mrs. Genota teaches at Lawndale High will participate in the piloting of the TANMS Module as an enrichment component of their regular curriculum. Four TANMS graduate students, Cai Chen, Kevin Fitzell, Steven Sasaki and Maggie Xaio, will facilitate the TANMS learning activities over two weeks in all seven classes. This pilot experience will serve to inform a new TANMS Professional Development Institute that will be offered to high school science teachers in the Los Angeles region interested in implementing the TANMS Science Model in their classroom in the 2017-2018 academic year.

TANMS Graduate Student Wins the 2016 MMM Conference Best Poster Award

Congratulations to Anthony Barra for bringing home the Best Poster Award at the 61st Annual Conference on Magnetism and Magnetic Materials (MMM) in New Orleans, Louisiana this past October.  Tony is a third year doctorate student under TANMS faculty, Professor Gregory Carman, in the UCLA Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering with research interests in skyrmion control and spin wave logic.  Tony's winning poster titled "Towards Strain-Mediated Control of Spin Waves for Logic" explores possible solutions to the intrinsic resistive heating and energy inefficiency problem caused by current leakage in modern MOSFET logic circuits.  

Student Highlights

Dominic Labanowski
is a fifth-year PhD student under Professor Sayeef Salahuddin in the UC Berkeley Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences. Dominic holds a B.S. in Electrical and Computer Engineering from The Ohio State University. He has served as both President and Vice President of the TANMS Student Body, and continues to serve on the Student Leadership Council as the Berkeley campus representative.

Dominic’s primary research focus is in acoustically-driven ferromagnetic resonance, with other interests in low-energy magnetic switching and development of electrically small antennas. He has several years of experience with nanoscale fabrication of microwave magnetic and multiferroic devices in the UC Berkeley Marvell Nanofabrication Facility, as well as significant experience in RF device design, characterization, and measurement. In addition, Dominic has substantial expertise in modeling of such systems using COMSOL Multiphysics and OOMMF.

Dominic is nearing the completion of his PhD, and would be open to opportunities in industrial research, technical consulting, and academia.

George Mattson
has an A.B. in History from Princeton University and is currently pursuing an M.S. in Electrical Engineering at CSUN, with a concentration in Electronics, Solid State, and Integrated Circuits Engineering. At CSUN, he is a graduate research assistant in the Computational Materials Theory Center under Dr. Nicholas Kioussis. His research focuses on electric field and strain-induced control of magnetocrystalline anisotropy in thin films. His graduate project deals with signal processing applications of a computationally simulated spin-torque nano-oscillator.

After completing his M.S. in 2017, he hopes to pursue a PhD in Materials Science or to work in private industry as a research engineer.

Hyunmin Sohn
is a fifth-year PhD candidate under Professor Rob Candler in UCLA Department of Electrical Engineering. He received his B.S. degree in Electrical Engineering at Seoul National University in 2007 and his M.S. degree in Electrical Engineering at UCLA in 2012. His PhD research is to control magnetization in nanoscale multiferroic heterostructures using magnetoelastic effect. He has over 5 years of experience in modelling, fabrication, and measurements of nanoscale multiferroics. 

Hyunmin is in the process of finishing his PhD, and is currently looking for positions in industry.

Zhi(Jackie) Yao
is a fifth-year PhD student under Professor Yuanxun Ethan Wang in UCLA Electrical Engineering Department. She received her B.S. from Optical Engineering Department at Zhejiang University in China. Her research fields include wireless communication, multi-physics numerical modeling and debugging, RF/antenna simulation, analysis, design, fabrication and test. She is perceptive in numerical simulation by composing Matlab algorithm, and skilled in EM simulations on ADS, HFSS, and CST platforms. She is also interested in advanced material development for RF applications. Being in TANMS since 2012, she is cooperative in group work, with more than 3-year experience of collaborating with multi-disciplinary researchers. 

She is completing her PhD, and is actively in pursuing industrial positions in RF/antennas, novel devices, and numerical modeling. 

Colin Rementer
is a 5th year Ph.D. candidate in the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering in Professor Jane P. Chang’s group. He holds degrees in Chemical Engineering and Women’s and Gender Studies from Lafayette College in Pennsylvania. His project within TANMS focuses on the development of low-loss magnetically soft materials for integration into both surface acoustic wave (SAW) and bulk acoustic wave (BAW) antennae. Other research interests include probing the exchange-coupling of ferromagnetic materials via polarized neutron reflectometry to better understand how to tailor material properties for device applications. He has served as President, Vice-President and the Student Industrial Liason officer for TANMS from 2014-2017 and actively participated in the mentoring program. 

Colin is planning on finishing his Ph.D. work in Spring 2017 and is actively seeking industrial research positions.

Makita R. Phillips
is a 1st year California Alliance Postdoctoral Fellow under Professor Gregory P. Carman at UCLA in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering. She holds a B.S. and M.S in Mechanical Engineering from Florida Agricultural and Mechanical Engineering. She earned her Ph.D. from North Carolina State University where her research focused on understanding the effects of insulation materials on the thermal management of superconducting coil systems. Currently, her research involves the usage of multiferroic materials to convert heat to electricity for thermal energy harvesting. Some of her Ph.D. work has been published in the IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity. More recently, she has co-authored an article published in the Journal of Applied Physics. 

Makita is interested in obtaining a Tenure Track faculty position where she can expand on her work with thermalmagnetics and other renewable energy systems.  

TANMS Welcomes Winchester Technologies As A New Industry Partner!

TANMS is excited to welcome Winchester Technologies, LLC as a new member of our TANMS Industrial Advisory Board.  Winchester Technologies, LLC began in 2009 as a spin-off from Northeastern University. They offer a wide range of consulting, research and development services and products on a wide range of electronic materials, devices and subsystems. 

The core business areas of Winchester Technologies, LLC are on magnetic, ferroelectric and multiferroic microwave materials for power electronics, RF and microwave devices and subsystems. The different electronic devices include magnetic sensors, energy harvesting device and systems, inductors and transformers for power electronics, RF and microwave devices, etc. The RF and microwave devices include antennas, phase shifters, tunable bandpass filters, tunable bandstop filters, tunable inductors, integrated RF magnetic inductors, integrated magnetic transformers, isolators, circulators, etc.

IAB Member Highlights

Each issue of the TANMS Multiferroic Focus will profile a few of our existing Industrial Advisory Board member firms.  Thank you to our IAB for their continual support and collaboration.

Northrop Grumman has a long history of working with universities, small companies, and other organizations during the development of defense, homeland security and other critical programs. You can view a summary of these programs by clicking on the Northrop Grumman Products link. The Northrop Grumman Innovation Network encourages the most innovative academics and other organizations and individuals to work with Northrop Grumman in the development of the next-generation of these critical programs.

Founded in 1988, Radiant Technologies, Inc. of Albuquerque, New Mexico is dedicated to the evaluation and exploitation of Ferroelectric and Multiferroic technologies and products. Having been present at the inception of thin ferroelectric film memories, we continue to uphold our position as a respected world leader in research, development and implementation of non-linear materials test equipment and thin ferroelectric-film-capacitor components.

TANMS 2016 Publications

Akyol, Mustafa, Jiang, Wanjun, Yu, Guoqiang, Fan, Yabin, Gunes, Mustafa, Ekicibil, Ahmet, . . . Wang, Kang L. (2016). Effect of heavy metal layer thickness on spin-orbit torque and current-induced switching in Hf|CoFeB|MgO structures. Applied Physics Letters, 109(2), 022403. doi:doi:

Belemuk, A. M., Udalov, O. G., Chtchelkatchev, N. M., & Beloborodov, I. S. (2016). Competition of magneto-dipole, anisotropy and exchange interactions in composite multiferroics. Journal of Physics-Condensed Matter, 28(12). doi:Artn 126001

Bhaskar, U. K., Banerjee, N., Abdollahi, A., Wang, Z., Schlom, D. G., Rijnders, G., & Catalan, G. (2016). A flexoelectric microelectromechanical system on silicon. Nature Nanotechnology, 11(3), 263-+. doi:10.1038/Nnano.2015.260

Chavez, Andres C, Lopez, Mario, & Youssef, George. (2016). Converse magneto-electric coefficient of concentric multiferroic composite ring. Journal of Applied Physics, 119(23), 233905.

Chien, Diana, Buditama, Abraham N, Schelhas, Laura T, Kang, Hye Yeon, Robbennolt, Shauna, Chang, Jane P, & Tolbert, Sarah H. (2016). Tuning magnetoelectric coupling using porosity in multiferroic nanocomposites of ALD-grown Pb (Zr, Ti) O3 and templated mesoporous CoFe2O4. Applied Physics Letters, 109(11), 112904.

Chien, Diana, Li, Xiang, Wong, Kin, Zurbuchen, Mark A, Robbennolt, Shauna, Yu, Guoqiang, . . . Wang, Kang L. (2016). Enhanced voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy in magnetic tunnel junctions with an MgO/PZT/MgO tunnel barrier. Applied Physics Letters, 108(11), 112402.

Domann, John P, Sun, Wei-Yang, Schelhas, Laura T, & Carman, Greg P. (2016). Strain-mediated multiferroic control of spontaneous exchange bias in Ni-NiO heterostructures. Journal of Applied Physics, 120(14), 143904.

Emori, Satoru, Nan, Tianxiang, Belkessam, Amine M., Wang, Xinjun, Matyushov, Alexei D., Babroski, Christopher J., . . . Sun, Nian X. (2016). Interfacial spin-orbit torque without bulk spin-orbit coupling. Physical Review B, 93(18), 180402.

Fang, Bin, Carpentieri, Mario, Hao, Xiaojie, Jiang, Hongwen, Katine, Jordan A, Krivorotov, Ilya N, . . . Zhang, Baoshun. (2016). Giant spin-torque diode sensitivity in the absence of bias magnetic field. Nature Communications, 7.

Gao, Ya, Hu, Jia-Mian, Nelson, CT, Yang, TN, Shen, Y, Chen, LQ, . . . Nan, CW. (2016). Dynamic in situ observation of voltage-driven repeatable magnetization reversal at room temperature. Scientific Reports, 6, 23696.

Gilbert, Ian, Chavez, Andres C, Pierce, Daniel T, Unguris, John, Sun, Wei-Yang, Liang, Cheng-Yen, & Carman, Gregory P. (2016). Magnetic microscopy and simulation of strain-mediated control of magnetization in PMN-PT/Ni nanostructures. Applied Physics Letters, 109(16), 162404.

Gopman, D. B., Kabanov, Y. P., Cui, J., Lynch, C. S., & Shull, R. D. (2016). Influence of internal geometry on magnetization reversal in asymmetric permalloy rings. Applied Physics Letters, 109(8), 082407. doi:doi:

Gopman, DB, Lau, JW, Mohanchandra, KP, Wetzlar, K, & Carman, GP. (2016). Determination of the exchange constant of Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe2 by broadband ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Physical Review B, 93(6). doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.93.064425

Grezes, C, Ebrahimi, F, Alzate, JG, Cai, X, Katine, JA, Langer, J, . . . Wang, KL. (2016). Ultra-low switching energy and scaling in electric-field-controlled nanoscale magnetic tunnel junctions with high resistance-area product. Applied Physics Letters, 108(1), 012403.

Grezes, C., Rojas Rozas, A., Ebrahimi, F., Alzate, J. G., Cai, X., Katine, J. A., . . . Wang, K. L. (2016). In-plane magnetic field effect on switching voltage and thermal stability in electric-field-controlled perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions. Aip Advances, 6(7), 075014. doi:doi:

Holtz, Megan E., Mundy, Julia A., Chang, Celesta S., Moyer, Jarrett A., Brooks, Charles M., Das, Hena, . . . Muller, David A. (2016). Imaging Local Polarization and Domain Boundaries with Picometer-Precision Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy. Microscopy and Microanalysis, 22(SupplementS3), 898-899. doi:doi:10.1017/S143192761600533X

Hu, Jia-Mian, Yang, Tiannan, Momeni, Kasra, Cheng, Xiaoxing, Chen, Lei, Lei, Shiming, . . . Carman, Gregory P. (2016). Fast magnetic domain-wall motion in a ring-shaped nanowire driven by a voltage. Nano Letters.

Hu, Zhongqiang, Wang, Xinjun, Nan, Tianxiang, Zhou, Ziyao, Ma, Beihai, Chen, Xiaoqin, . . . Gao, Yuan. (2016). Non-Volatile Ferroelectric Switching of Ferromagnetic Resonance in NiFe/PLZT Multiferroic Thin Film Heterostructures. Scientific Reports, 6.

Jiang, W, Zhang, X, Upadhyaya, P, Zhang, W, Yu, G, Jungfleisch, M, . . . Wang, K. (2016a). Observation of room-temperature skyrmion Hall effect. Paper presented at the APS Meeting Abstracts.

Jiang, W, Zhang, X, Upadhyaya, P, Zhang, W, Yu, G, Jungfleisch, M, . . . Wang, K. (2016b). Observation of room-temperature skyrmion Hall effect. Bulletin of the American Physical Society.

Jiang, Wanjun, Zhang, Wei, Yu, Guoqiang, Jungfleisch, M Benjamin, Upadhyaya, Pramey, Somaily, Hamoud, . . . Heinonen, Olle. (2016). Mobile Néel skyrmions at room temperature: status and future. Aip Advances, 6(5), 055602.

Keller, Scott M, Liang, Cheng-Yen, & Carman, Gregory P. (2016). Voltage Control of Single Magnetic Domain Nanoscale Heterostructure, Analysis and Experiments Mechanics of Composite and Multi-functional Materials, Volume 7 (pp. 231-234): Springer.

Ko, Changhyun, Lee, Yeonbae, Chen, Yabin, Suh, Joonki, Fu, Deyi, Suslu, Aslihan, . . . Tongay, Sefaatin. (2016). Ferroelectrically Gated Atomically Thin Transition‐Metal Dichalcogenides as Nonvolatile Memory. Advanced Materials.

Labanowski, D, Jung, A, & Salahuddin, S. (2016). Power absorption in acoustically driven ferromagnetic resonance. Applied Physics Letters, 108(2), 022905.

Lee, H., Gr, C., x00E, zes, Wang, S., Ebrahimi, F., . . . Wang, K. L. (2016). Source Line Sensing in Magneto-Electric Random-Access Memory to Reduce Read Disturbance and Improve Sensing Margin. IEEE Magnetics Letters, 7, 1-5. doi:10.1109/LMAG.2016.2552149

Lee, Hochul, Ebrahimi, Farbod, Amiri, Pedram Khalili, & Wang, Kang L. (2016). Low-Power, High-Density Spintronic Programmable Logic With Voltage-Gated Spin Hall Effect in Magnetic Tunnel Junctions. IEEE Magnetics Letters, 7, 1-5.

Li, Linze, Xue, Fei, Nelson, Christopher, Melville, Alexander, Heikes, Colin, Schlom, Darrell, . . . Pan, Xiaoqing. (2016). Size Effect on Spontaneous Flux-closure Domains in BiFeO 3 Thin Films. Microscopy and Microanalysis, 22(SupplementS3), 1596-1597. doi:doi:10.1017/S1431927616008825

Li, Minghua, Lu, Jinhui, Akyol, Mustafa, Chen, Xi, Shi, Hui, Han, Gang, . . . Kioussis, Nick. (2017). The impact of Hf layer thickness on the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Hf/CoFeB/MgO/Ta films. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 694, 76-81.

Li, Minghua, Lu, Jinhui, Yu, Guoqiang, Li, Xiang, Han, Gang, Chen, Xi, . . . Wang, Kang L. (2016). Influence of inserted Mo layer on the thermal stability of perpendicularly magnetized Ta/Mo/Co20Fe60B20/MgO/Ta films. Aip Advances, 6(4), 045107. doi:doi:

Li, Minghua, Shi, Hui, Yu, Guoqiang, Lu, Jinhui, Chen, Xi, Han, Gang, . . . Wang, Kang L. (2017). Effects of annealing on the magnetic properties and microstructures of Ta/Mo/CoFeB/MgO/Ta films. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 692, 243-248.

Liang, Cheng-Yen, Sepulveda, Abdon, Keller, Scott, & Carman, Gregory P. (2016). Deterministic switching of a magnetoelastic single-domain nano-ellipse using bending. Journal of Applied Physics, 119(11), 113903.

Mundy, Julia A, Brooks, Charles M, Holtz, Megan E, Moyer, Jarrett A, Das, Hena, Rébola, Alejandro F, . . . Liu, Zhiqi. (2016). Atomically engineered ferroic layers yield a room-temperature magnetoelectric multiferroic. Nature, 537(7621), 523-527.

Nan, Tianxiang, Emori, Satoru, Peng, Bin, Wang, Xinjun, Hu, Zhongqiang, Xie, Li, . . . Luo, Haosu. (2016). Control of magnetic relaxation by electric-field-induced ferroelectric phase transition and inhomogeneous domain switching. Applied Physics Letters, 108(1), 012406.

Ong, P. V., & Kioussis, N. (2016). Ab initio prediction of giant magnetostriction and spin-reorientation in strained Au/FeCo/MgO heterostructure. Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 400, 262-265. doi:10.1016/j.jmmm.2015.07.065

Ong, P. V., Kioussis, Nicholas, Amiri, P. Khalili, & Wang, K. L. (2016). Electric-field-driven magnetization switching and nonlinear magnetoelasticity in Au/FeCo/MgO heterostructures. Scientific Reports, 6, 29815. doi:10.1038/srep29815

Tang, Jianshi, Yu, Guoqiang, Wang, Chiu-Yen, Chang, Li-Te, Jiang, Wanjun, He, Congli, & Wang, Kang L. (2016). Versatile Fabrication of Self-Aligned Nanoscale Hall Devices using Nanowire Masks. Nano Letters.

Wang, Chuanshou, Ke, Xiaoxing, Wang, Jianjun, Liang, Renrong, Luo, Zhenlin, Tian, Yu, . . . Zhang, Jinxing. (2016). Ferroelastic switching in a layered-perovskite thin film. Nat Commun, 7. doi:10.1038/ncomms10636

Wang, Kang. (2016). (Invited) Towards Topological Antiferromagnetic Spintronics. Paper presented at the PRiME 2016/230th ECS Meeting (October 2-7, 2016).

Wang, Kang L. (2016a). Spin Orbit Interaction Engineering for beyond Spin Transfer Torque memory. Paper presented at the APS Meeting Abstracts.

Wang, Kang L. (2016b). Spin Orbit Interaction Engineering for beyond Spin Transfer Torque memory. Bulletin of the American Physical Society.

Wang, S., Lee, H., Ebrahimi, F., Amiri, P. K., Wang, K. L., & Gupta, P. (2016). Comparative Evaluation of Spin-Transfer-Torque and Magnetoelectric Random Access Memory. IEEE Journal on Emerging and Selected Topics in Circuits and Systems, 6(2), 134-145. doi:10.1109/JETCAS.2016.2547681

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